Today, Sapere has lost another one of our inspirational founders, E.P. Köster.
During his career, his research has greatly contributed to a better understanding of our eating behaviour especially in connection with olfaction. E.P. was a doctoral professor in experimental psychology at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands (1976-1997), and also very active in a number of organizations and international networks. For some of these he was the co-founder, as in the case of the European Chemoreception Research Organisation, the European Sensory Network as well as Sapere International Association.
The idea of creating Sapere International to promote taste education in Europe germinated during a conversation between Roelof Huurneman and E.P. Köster at the banks of Starneberger See in Munich in 1993. In the following they went to meet Jacques Puisais together, and in 1995 the Non profit Sapere International Association was founded.
Later, between 2004 and 2008 at The European Centre of Taste in Dijon, France, E.P. Köster supervised research dedicated to better understanding of the effects of taste education on food preferences and behaviour.
More recently, E.P. Köster participated in the Sapere Symposium organized in collaboration with the Paul Bocuse Institute in Lyon, France in 2017.
For the 2019 Sapere Symposium in Cambridge, UK, unfortunately E.P. was already weakened and unable to attend. He still participated with a vibrant written tribute to his friend Roelof Huuurneman who died shortly before. Today both initiators and founders of Sapere rests in peace. The Sapere International Association continues to support and develop their legacy to better educate children about taste.
E.P. Köster will remain in our memories due to his strong contribution on the advancement in scientific knowledge, but also as an inspiring, humble and warm personality for all of us who had the privilege to meet him.
Caroline Reverdy, on behalf of the Sapere International Board.
You find more information on the research and career of E.P. Köster on the website of the European Sensory Network:
It is with great pleasure that we can inform you that sensory food-based education based on the SAPERE method now has been included in the UK Department of Education website as a preferred approach to Food Education for Early Years Settings. Impressive progress due to great work of our UK partners TasteEd.
TO HELP YOUR LITTLE ONES KNOW AND LOVE THEIR VEGETABLES !
Activities and resources
At SeeandEat.org you will find:
eBooks that show vegetables’ different journeys from farm to plate. You can read the books on your smartphone or tablet and, if you want to, you can personalise them with your child.
A few minutes a day with the eBook over a few weeks makes all the difference when the vegetables turn up on your child’s plate!
Also lots of activities: to grow vegetables, do the shopping, explore, cook and eat.
As well as resources providing you with more fun ways to help your child get to know and love vegetables.
How does See & Eat work?
Research shows that pre-school children are more likely to eat a vegetable during a meal if they already know what it looks like and where it comes from. The more your child knows about vegetables before they appear on the plate, the more he or she will enjoy them! Especially the ones he or she doesn’t like or has never tried before!
The See & Eat eBooks and activities use exposure techniques that aim to help your child get to know each vegetable well before tasting it. Parents have confirmed that it’s easier to get children to eat vegetables when they’ve seen them before in See & Eat books.
If you’d like to know more about the research behind See & Eat, visit Kids Food Choices on University of Reading’s website.
The See & Eat resources were created by a pan-European group of universities and health organisations.
On behalf of the Sapere International board I would like to wish all our members and friends a happy, healthy and safe 2021.
I do not think many of us are sad to leave the year of 2020 behind. The Covid-19 pandemic and the following restrictions have affected us all in different, and for some in difficult ways. It will possibly have long-lasting impact on behaviour and therefore also areas as travel, education, work and the way we meet and interact in the future.
We can see that our members have adjusted their activites to the situation, for instance TastEd by their nice offer of support for Taste education at home https://www.tasteeducation.com/tasted-at-home/. We have learned a lot about how to use digital solutions, something I hope we will have use of in our future Sapere activites. Our members in Japan tried a remote taste class last year, for five years old children, with great success. The experimental event was introduced by Japanese TV news. Another nice example how digitalization opens up for new target groups is the Food education event arranged by Helsinki university in November 2020 which was partly in English and open to our Sapere members. 2020 was also the first year we started to use a digital solution for our boardmeetings, it works well and makes it much easer to quickly assemble the board (who lives in; Norway – Einar Risvik, France – Jacques Leignel, Switzerland – Caroline Reverdy, Belgium – Didier Kariger, Finland – Arja Lyytikainen, UK – Jason O’Rourke and Sweden – myself).
But, as human beings we are all sensory creatures, I hope we will soon be able to arrange a Sapere member meeting and interact live as well.
On the occasion of Taste Week, which took place 12th-16th October 2020, SAPERE Les Classes du Goût association launched the first phase of its taste education training for nursery workers.
We have in effect set up a partnership with the Early Years service of the town of Senlis, aiming, firstly, to raise awareness among nursery workers of the importance of integrating taste education into their daily activities with toddlers(18 to 36 months old), and secondly, to train them in our taste education method.
During Taste Week we met the Early Years service managers along with the nursery workers. We asked them about the challenges they encounter in their work and about their needs in terms of taste education. With the children present, we were able to demonstrate our approach using typical activities based on play and sensory experimentation.
In those morning sessions, the children and the nursery workers (re)discovered the apple in all its forms and all its colours. Apples are an ideal fruit – rich and varied, reassuring for children – for talking about taste while taking into account issues around access to healthy, tasty and seasonal food.
This training programme for childhood professionals is supported by the Hauts-de-France DRAAF (Regional Directorate-General of Food, Agriculture and Forests), as part of the regional implementation of the National Food Plan.
Ratatouille & Cabrioles (R&C) is a three-year intervention consisting of sessions run collaboratively by CODES 83 project managers and the educational teams for children in pre-school settings in priority neighbourhoods. Families are involved in order to cut across different areas of the children’s lives. In 2018-19, R&C ran across 36 schools, involving 213 teachers, 106 teaching assistants, 1449 parents and 3331 benefiting children; there were 529 co-delivered classroom sessions and 74 interactions with parents in the form of discussions or parent-child workshops.
An outcomes assessment for the final-year pre-school children (4-5 years old) was carried out based on the protocol developed by Caroline Reverdy (2008), Edusens Project and Association SAPERE Classes du Goût, which aims in particular to reduce food neophobia through verbalisation and improving vocabulary.
The statistical analysis reveals that the children in the R&C project (123 children) talked less subjectively than the control children (96 children) – meaning they had a more realistic view of the foods they tasted. They were less influenced by their individual representations and their personal attraction (hedonism) to the food offered. So the children become agents of their sensory experience, which can be an indicator for reducing food neophobia, very present at that age.
After responding to a call for projects, SAPERE Les Classes du Goût has been selected by the Hauts de France DRAAF (Directorate-General of Food, Agriculture and Forests) to take part in implementing one of the priority areas of the National Food Programme: “Developing food education for young people and enhancing food heritage”.
Our association is proud and very lucky to be able, through this project, to raise awareness of and deploy the SAPERE METHOD for taste education, by offering to train willing school teachers, trainers, key workers and canteen staff in the Hauts de France region.
In conjunction with the various forms of academic learning that we’ve been developing for many years, this original, interactive method allows children and teenagers to discover food diversity, to get to know their sensory profile better and to become more open to accepting difference.
We hope the project will be a success that we can talk more about here.
As with all industrialised countries, Switzerland has an aging population. With more than 18.7% senior citizens today, in 2040 the proportion in our country will be more than 25% (Federal Statistics Office, 2019). In Switzerland, the malnutrition rate amongst older people is 5% for people at home aged between 65 and 79 years old, and 10% for people aged 80 and above (Morisod, 2010).
The challenge of “aging well” is therefore hugely important. Staying in good health for as long as possible is a major public health issue. To achieve this, it’s important to ensure the quality of life needed to maintain older people’s autonomy (Escalon & Francois, 2010).
In light of this situation, in 2015 the Swiss canton of Valais put in place a cantonal action plan (PAC) for the promotion of health for the elderly, called Plateform 60+, on behalf of the Public Health Service. Co-funded by Promotion Santé Suisse and Promotion Santé Valais, the PAC includes themed modules for seniors about diet and physical activity, mental health, preparing for retirement, and substance abuse. Amongst the essentials for older people’s autonomy and health, diet plays a critical role. The Senso5 Foundation  was tasked with developing tools for a project called “Diet, autonomy, quality of life for seniors”.
Malnutrition-related risks increase with age. Unfortunately, these risks are too rarely taken into account and once malnutrition has been diagnosed, it is often difficult to re-establish a good nutritional state. Malnutrition has multiple consequences, but often it starts with weight loss and fatigue, a weakening of the immune system and various infections (urinary, pulmonary), but also loss of muscle mass, which can lead to dizziness and loss of balance.
Alongside malnutrition, dehydration is an equally widespread problem amongst the elderly. In Switzerland about 20% of people aged over 75 years old drink less than a litre of fluids a day, whereas the Swiss Nutrition Society recommends one to two litres a day (Federal Office of Statistics, 2015).
Malnutrition and dehydration are two conditions that can have severe consequences for health as well as independence and quality of life. Generally, those affected have to be hospitalised and then placed in nursing homes, due to slow recovery and loss of autonomy. Action to prevent these conditions is therefore important to enable people to stay at home as long as possible.
This led Senso5 Foundation to create tools to reduce the risks of malnutrition and dehydration, thanks to collaboration with the relevant professionals and caregivers working with seniors.
These tools include a brochure called “Plates and Trainers, more pleasure in retirement”, published in French and German, which shares recommendations for diet and movement, as well as practical tips for organising the kitchen and preventing accidents in the home. With accessible, non-stigmatising information and lots of pictures, this brochure is aimed at seniors and those close to them, but also at professionals who want to build their knowledge or use it more in their work.
Two digital tools are also available on the Foundation’s website (www.senso5.ch). The first lets anyone test their senses using a questionnaire. It then provides tailored advice based on the answers given, to help limit sensory decline or find alternatives to this decline. The second tool offers tips for the kitchen and a range of healthy recipes for seniors. The recipes can be adapted for different numbers of people (two or four) and ways of measuring ingredients (based on grams or utensils). The recipes are organised into categories (for example, quick dishes, stews, cooking with leftovers….), and new recipes are added regularly.
Lastly, Senso5 Foundation has developed 15 educational videos about the food challenges that can affect seniors. Filmed as a dialogue between a senior in their own kitchen and another adult, the videos cover various topics, such as kitchen hygiene, appetite, digestion problems or mobility. These short segments are designed for the general public and use a light-hearted but professional tone by involving experts to explain or go further into the various themes.
To complete these tools and optimise malnutrition prevention by raising awareness among relevant professionals, training sessions are delivered in health centres and various other institutions (health-related universities, ongoing training, day centres). There is a particular focus on training these multipliers, as with their experience on the ground and the challenges they encounter on a daily basis, they are invaluable informers and actors of prevention among seniors. Thanks to collaboration and communication across disciplines, all stakeholders can contribute with the shared goal of maintaining the autonomy and quality of life of seniors as long as possible.
Through its work, Senso5 Foundation wants seniors to be actors of their own diets, as much in relation to the choice of what’s on their plate, as around the daily management of this food (including preparation). In this way Senso5 Foundation acts at different levels, taking into account individual needs, by analysing the situation and making arrangements to enable autonomy.
Achmann N, Burla L, Kohler D. (2015) La santé en Suisse – Le point sur les maladies chroniques Rapport national sur la santé 2015. Observatoire suisse de la santé, Neuchâtel
Escalon, H. & Beck, F. (2010). Perceptions, connaissances et comportements en matière d’alimentation: Les spécificités des seniors. Gérontologie et société, vol. 33 / 134(3), 13-29.
Morisod, J. (2011). Dénutrition de la personne âgée. Revue Médicale Suisse, 279(3), 209-210.